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June 11, 2005

ヒューリスティック

職人(熟練)の凄さは、単に上手に加工できるということだけではなく、新しい課題が生じた時に、これまでの経験から類推して、それを乗り越える方法を見出せることです。

コンピュータが発達し、何でもやってくれると思いがちですが、コンピュータは、決められた処理しかやれません。新しい素材や新しい形状を加工するには、人間が試行錯誤しながら手がけるしかないのです。

コンピュータが新しい問題を解く場合、一連の規則的手続きに従って、しらみつぶしに当たって解決や結論を出すのに対し、熟練した職人の場合、最適な加工方法がひらめいて、試行錯誤するにせよ、格段に早く解を見つけ出すことが可能です。

これは、「発見法的推論=ヒューリスティック(heuristic)」と呼ばれるもののようです。

野中先生の本から抜書きすると「ヒューリスティックとは、現在与えられている認識のパターンから、仮説的にある種の予想を立てて、その予想に従って探索的施行を遂行して、その結果を『望ましさ』の尺度で評価すること。全ての可能な経路をしらみつぶしに探索するのではなく、その問題領域に即して、何らかの『発見法的探索』が行われる」とあります。

・・・と分かった気でいたのですが、ネット検索してみますと、私が「コンピュータ対職人」と記述したことは間違っているようです。私がコンピュータとしたことは「アルゴリズム」による探索のことで、ヒューリスティックな探索をするコンピュータもあるらしい(前述の野中先生の本から抜書きした文章も、よく読むと、サイモンらがそういう人工知能をコンピュータ上に実現した話のなかに書かれていました)。

そうなると、「コンピュータ対職人」ではなく、「アルゴリズム対ヒューリスティック」ということになります。また、ヒューリスティックとは、職人(熟練)に限らず、人間が経験に基づいて判断する仕方を指すようです。では、ヒューリスティックで発見する解が熟練者のほうが未熟練な人より正解に近いのでしょうか、残念ながら、このことについて書かれたものにはまだ出会っていません。

ということで、ここはお預け。

+++++++++

ところで、もう一つメモっておきたいことがあります。

師が弟子に暗黙知を伝える場合、メタファーを使うことがあります。たとえば、例のヘリゲルに師が弓の射方を教えるにあたって「的を射ろうと焦るのではなく、葉から雪が落ちるようになるまで待て」といったようなことを言います。

よく分からないのですが、ある程度の水準に到った職人は、自分の課題の解を探すに当って、自分でメタファーを見つけ出すような気がします。ニュートンがリンゴが木から落ちるのを見て万有引力の法則を発見したというのが本当かどうか知りませんが、ある程度まで突き詰めて考えていると、ひょっと見た何かなどからヒントが湧いて、解の糸口が見付かる、もやもやとしていたものが見えてくるという経験は誰しも持っているのではないでしょうか。

SECIモデルでは、メタファーなどによって暗黙知が分節化され形式知になり、それがまた内面化されて暗黙知が高まると言いますが、一人の人間のなかで、形式知を経由せずに暗黙知のレベルを高めることができるように思います。

職人は、他の人との対話をしながら視点を変えて問題を別の角度から見るのではなく、自分一人で、視点を変えて考えることが出来る人なのではないでしょうか。あるいは、一人ではなく、たとえば加工する対象物と対話しているのかもしれません。

職人が凄いのは、たとえば、300年前に作られた茶碗とか箱とかと対話できることです。先人の見事な細工物を見て、その先人の力量を理解し、何故そのような加工を施したのか、どのように加工したのかを類推し、学ぶことができます。

新しい加工対象が目の前に現れたとき、職人はこれまでの経験(追加的に知識を得ることもあると思います)を踏まえ、加工物と対話し、もっとも望ましい加工方法をおそらくヒューリスティックに見つけ出す。その場合に使われる知識のデータベースは、加工に関することだけではなく、葉から雪が落ちることだったり、リンゴが木から落ちることも含んでいるのだろうと思います。角度を変えてものごとを見直すというのは、加工のデータベースだけでなく、たとえば景色のデータベースを探ることなのかもしれません。

以上は、まだ思いつきの段階の話です。

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