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June 06, 2005

SECIモデル(暗黙知と形式知の相互作用)

知の創造の種類として有名な四象限があります。

  1. 共同:暗黙知→暗黙知(Socialization)
    ・職人が職人芸を移転する場合。
    ・記述できないいままに起居を共にしながら観察、模倣、師の生徒へのコーチングなどを通じて長期的に伝播。
    ・相互作用として知を共に作るというよりは、一方から他方へ知を移転する側面が強い。
  2. 分節化:暗黙知→形式知(Externalization
    ・メタファー→アナロジー→モデルといった過程を通して暗黙知が形式知化される。
  3. 連結:形式知を組み合わせて新たな知を創る(Combination
    ・形式知を分類する、加える、組み合わせる、カテゴライズするなどして新しい知識を創る。
    ・コンピュータが得意とする分野である。学校教育で行われる知識創造は、この方法によることが多い。
  4. 内面化:形式知→暗黙知(Internalization
    ・形式知となった言語の意味を理解し、実践することを通して新たな暗黙知を築きあげる。

暗黙知と形式知は、相互作用によって知をスパイラルに創造していきます。これを四象限の英語の頭文字を取って「SECIモデル(セキ・モデル)」と呼んでいます。

暗黙知と形式知は長期記憶に保存されており、分節化、内面化という概念化プロセスは、短期記憶(作動記憶)に相当すると考えられます。概念化プロセスは、長期記憶に蓄積されている知識を活性化させる情報創造の過程であり、長期記憶は、概念化を契機として活性化して利用される知識の倉庫とみなされます。

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