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April 02, 2009

豊中市社協の校区福祉委員会

前記事で紹介した池田さんの資料で「小地域福祉の多様な主体と連携」に記載されている事例を順次見ていきたい。

まずは、小学校区を単位に福祉委員会を設けている豊中市社協を紹介する。

HPによると、校区福祉委員会は、豊中市社協の内部組織であって、概ね小学校校区単位に結成された民間の自主的な団体で41あるとのこと。校区内の身近な福祉問題を解決するために、地域に組織されている各種団体の協力を得ながら、地域全体のまちづくりを進めている。

ここで言う各種団体とは、次のようなものを指している。

 ①住民団体:自治会、婦人会、子ども会、農協、商店会など

 ②福祉団体:民生・児童委員会、保護司会、赤十字奉仕団、ボランティアグループなど

 ③当事者団体:老人クラブ、ひとり暮らし老人の会、障害者団体など

 ④関係団体:公民分館、青少年健全育成会、防犯協議会、小学校、PTA、人権教育推進委員協議会、健康づくり推進員会など

 ⑤その他:学識経験者など

具体的にどのような活動をしているかと言うと、次のようなものがあり、地域の実情にあった取り組みをしている。

 ●老人福祉活動:ふれあい給食サービス、敬老の集い、友愛訪問、ゲートボール大会、ひとり暮らし老人の会への援助、三世代交流活動など

 ●小地域福祉ネットワーク活動

 ●青少年福祉活動:いも掘り、親子オリエンテーリング、青少年カーニバル、もちつき大会、ボランティア協力校への援助、子ども会の事業への協力

 ●保健福祉活動:献血運動、生活習慣病検診、健康教室など

 ●その他:福祉講座の開催、広報紙の発行、福祉祭、美化運動、防犯パトロール、共同募金の協力、文化祭・体育祭の協力など

上記の小地域福祉ネットワーク活動とは身近な地域での助け合いを行うため、要援護者を対象に  

(1)予防・予知・ニーズの発見活動(声かけ・見守り)

(2)個別援助活動(話し相手・買物・薬取りなど)

を実施している。

これらの活動をより広げ、支えるためにグループ援助活動としてふれあいサロンやミニデイサービス、子育てサロン、会食会、世代間交流などの福祉活動もあわせて進められている。

++++++++++++

豊中市の社協の活動がどの程度のものなのかを知るために、私が住んでいる西東京市の社協がやっていることをチェックしてみよう。我が家も2人で1000円の会費を払っているが、日常的に社協の活動を感じることはほとんどないからだ(献血くらい)。

HPをみると、当市の社協も小学校区単位の活動(ふれあいのまちづくり)をしているようであるが、HPを見る限りは、それぞれの地区が年一回程度、あるところは清掃活動を行い、あるところは食事会を開催などをやっているくらいのようだ。

訪問サービス(家事の一部 (掃除・洗濯・買い物・調理など)、外出の付き添い (通院・買い物・散歩など)、見守り・話し相手 その他)も提供しているが、有料(1時間1000円)のようだ。緊急通報サービスや移送サービスなどもメニューにあるが、HPからは詳細は不明である。

ふれあいのまちづくり事業については、20年度に力を入れるとしており、「市内全19小学校通学区域に各々住民懇談会(20地区)が立ち上がり、小地域活動をすすめていますが、平成20年度は、より多くの市民の参加のもと、ささえあい、たすけあいが広がるまちづくりを進めていきます。また、社会資源の発掘、整理およびますます求められる保健、医療、福祉の連携に重点をおき、「個別の課題に対応できるような地域における問題解決システム」の確立を図ります。特に次の6項目については重点的に取り組みます。①既存の住民組織の取り組みの検討、②地域福祉活動拠点の運営、③ささえあいネットワークとの連携強化、④子どもとおとなによる地域の課題への取り組み、⑤ 助成金交付事業の実施。 」と書かれている。

+++++++++++++

豊中市社協については、白澤政和という大阪市立大の福祉の先生がブログに書かれている。

社協の中心的人物である勝部麗子さんにお話を聞いたとのこと。白澤先生が書かれていることを抽出すると;

1.個別事例から問題を発見し、会議で検討し、それを地域全体の問題として捉え、予防・あるいは事後に必要なネットワークを作り出しているらしい。(Plan→Do→See)

2.高齢者の実態調査などを実施しているが、この調査から地域の問題を把握するというより、1の個別事例からネットワークを構築するにあたっての二次的な活動資料として活用している。

3.個別事例を地域全体の問題として捉えなおし、ネットワークを構築するにあたっての会議では、行政の職員、当事者も参加する。

4.個別事例の問題を発見するにあたっては、民生委員、ケアマネージャー等に加え、住民から校区福祉委員会を介して相談が入ることもある。小地域活動が活発であることがこうした問題発見力を高めている。

5.市全体の地域福祉ネットワーク会議があり、この下部組織的に課題別のネットワークが出来ており、これが統一的な仕組みになっている。

++++++++++++++++++

勝部さんについて検索してみた情報から、上記に整理されたことが具体的になんとなく分かってきた。

産経新聞08年5月に勝部さんらがごみ屋敷の女性に対応した事例が出ていた。

ゴミ屋敷の問題は、単にゴミを片付ければよいということではなく、心を開いてもらったり、ゴミを捨てる決断をしてもらうことが必要であり、次には、処分をどうするか、費用をどうするかなどの問題がある。また、その後こうした事態にならないよう、人とのつながりを持てるようになってもらう必要もある。

このケースをきっかけに、2005年、市や社協、保健所など関係機関と民生委員やボランティアが組織を横断して、「ゴミ屋敷問題リセットプロジェクト会議」をスタートさせた。事例を持ち寄った結果、片付けたくてもできない高齢者や障害者の存在が分かってきた。片付けには、関係業者の予約やボランティアの依頼など、調整力と労力が求められるため、「会議」では、関係機関の役割分担を決め、2007年には、ゴミを戸口まで取りに行く福祉収集システムも始めた。

ごみ屋敷の問題を一括して扱う行政窓口はない。そこで、同社協では、校区ごとにボランティアによる「福祉なんでも相談窓口」を開設し、相談を受けて、CSWが行政制度や地域の支援活動などにつなぐ仕組みを作っている。

以上が、ゴミ屋敷問題にCSWがどうかかわり、どのような組織やネットワークを作ったかの事例である。別の情報では、子育て支援の話も見つかった。いずれも、個別事例を地域の問題として捉え、どのようにしたらよいかの仕組みを作っている。

こうした動きは、おそらく西東京市では、まだまだこれからなのだろう。

+++++++++++++

なお、勝部さんもそうであるが、大阪府では、「コミュニティソーシャルワーカー(CSW)」を養成し、配置する制度を行っているらしい。(平成14年9月 大阪府社会福祉審議会答申「これからの地域福祉のあり方とその推進方策について」)

CSWとは、支援を必要とする人々を生活圏や人間関係などを重視し、見守り・相談などの活動やサービスに結びつける専門家。高齢者に限らず、障害者や子育て中の親なども援助の対象とし、公的制度との関係調整も行う。

大阪府が身近なセーフティネットとして配置を進めてきた。孤独死対策としても注目されている。

別の情報では、厚生労働省が平成18年度に「小地域福祉活性化事業」として全国市町村100ヶ所にCSWの配置をしたらしい(孤独死対策)。

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