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May 21, 2010

市民参加の現状

前の前の記事紹介の続き。まちづくり新聞社元編集長村上一成氏の記事より。

1.(財)地域活性化センター2003による全国自治体への調査結果では、人口3万人以上規模の自治体のそのほとんどで、住民参加を施策けっげいに導入していることが報告されている。

この調査の前提は広義な概念であり、「住民参加」の定義は、行政が住民の意向を把握することを目的としてアンケート調査や地域懇談会、WSなどを活用して住民に直接意見を聞く仕組みとされている。

2.NTTデータシステム科学研究所2003の調査結果では、各種基本計画の策定に住民が参加して白紙の段階から計画の素案づくりを行うなど、行政運営のさまざまなプロセスに住民が参加する行政と住民の「協働事例」の有無について調査をしている。

この調査結果では、人口1万人以上規模の自治体では50%が協働活動の事例有りと回答、人口10万人以上の規模に限れば80%以上が有りと回答している。

その具体的な内容としては、①課題の発見、②政策の立案、③政策・事業の実行、④政策・事業の評価など、各段階での参加が含まれていることが報告されている。

協働の具体的な情報や全国商工会議所がまとめている調査結果を俯瞰してみても、さまざまな領域に活動が広がってきており、特に、都市計画や環境に関連した領域での活動が活発になっていることがわかる。最近では、地域の総合計画の策定に市民の参画も進んできている。

レポートでは、さまざまな事例が紹介されている。

3.市民参加による街づくりの課題

全国的な調査により共通的な課題を明確化したものとして、野澤千恵2007『参加型街づくりの現状と課題に関する調査報告』東大先端科学技術研究センターによると、以下が指摘されている。

(1)自治体側の課題:①時間がかかる、②庁内連携の困難性(縦割り行政)、③行政の学習(力量)不足、意識の低さ、④行政の情報公開・提供・普及形も言う活動の不足、⑤市民参加や市民活動を支援する制度の不足など

(2)市民側の課題:①市民の街づくり参加意識の低さ、街づくりの基礎知識の不足、②市民組織間の連携・ネットワーク不足、③コーディネーターとなる人材、基盤の脆弱性、④年齢層やまちづくり関連団体への参加の偏り

4.市民参加モデル(進化の段階)からの考察

(1)社会学者のアーンスタインによる8段梯子モデル

非参加の段階:①操作、②治療

形式的参画の段階:③情報提供、④相談、⑤宥和

市民権力の段階:⑥パートナーシップ、⑦権限移譲、⑧市民による管理

(2)原科の5段階モデル

①情報提供→②意見聴取→③形だけの応答→④意味ある応答→⑤パートナーシップ

日本は、アーンスタインモデルでいえば、形式的参画の段階であり、先進的事例においては、市民権力の段階の⑥にも進みつつある状況であろう。住民も、原科の④や⑤を求め始めている。

○住民側も、参加とは、単に個別要求を出すことではなく、出した要求が自治体の政策となり、実現されるためには、財政や法律上のどのような制約があるのかを知り、個別要求を取捨選択し、全体を見渡しながら政策としてまとめるという政策的ノウハウを学習しなければならない。(筆者は、ここで個人では限界があるので、NPOの活動に期待している)

○印で書かれたところは、まさに藤沢町で、要望に順位をつけ、さらに住民が汗をかくことと、行政が汗やお金を出すことを決めていったところにあたる。藤沢町の場合、これをやるコーディネーター的役割は、各地区に振り分けられた役場職員であり、彼らも猛勉強を迫られた

5.市民参加街づくりの促進策

PDCAを導入するなどして、継続可能な仕組みにすることが必要。ヒヤリング調査報告を整理すると、次のような促進策があげられる。

①市民参加の場・仕組みの選択システムの安定化・明確化

②早期の段階からの市民関与の場づくり

③参加の場における透明で公正な協議・調整・意思決定プロセスの構築・明確化

④市民の提案権を受け止める制度の整備等、市民への権限委譲の促進

⑤市民が必要な情報公開と市民に必要な情報提供の促進

⑥多様な実践の場をより多く創出

⑦まちづくり・市民活動の総合相談・支援窓口の一元化と支援制度の充実

⑧市民のためのまちづくり活動拠点づくり

⑨行政と市民組織、市民組織同士のネットワークの強化

⑩行政職員のまちづくり意識・知識向上のための研修機会・プログラムの充実

⑪市民のまちづくり意識・知識向上のための研修機会・プログラムの充実

⑫参加の場における十分な学びの場の創出 など

○日野市が住民参加の自治を実施しようとした折、「住民のニーズを的確に取入れ反映するというシステムの構築がなされていなかった」ことが問題点であった。「市民が求めていることを言う場」「行政が市民の求めていることを知る場」をどのように見出すか。「市民が求めていることを施策として打ち出すシステム」「行政側が市民参加の扉を開くこと」。

その他として、アメリカでよく行われている市民とのやりとりを通じて都市や景観をプランニングしていく方法である「コミュニティデザイン」は、市民参加を促す有用なツールである。

これは、例のセオリー・オブ・チェンジのMAPづくりをすれば、景観的なことだけでなく、目的的なことで市民参加を促すツールとなる。発想は同じだろう

村上氏は、それにあたっても重要なのが、市民と行政あるいは企業との協働を進めることができる人材・リーダーの育成であるとしている。このほか、市民との協働を行うためのルールづくり(条例)の充実も重要。各地での貴重なノウハウの共有化も必要。

6.まとめ

自治体を対象としたアンケート調査の結果からは、地域自治体担当者は、地域に「産業」と「人材」がないことを痛感している。

五年間まちづくり新聞の編集者として全国を回ったが、インパクトのある地域特有のビジネスモデルがあまりなかった。個人的には、北海道から始まった市民出資の風力発電と、神奈川県の地域主導型PPPくらいであった。両者に共通するのは、ファイナンス技術をうまく駆使していること。

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