« 町内会の見方(日本的文化、行政の末端、自治体の原型、二重構造) | Main | 地域再生マニュアル(山浦晴男さん) »

August 29, 2010

都市住民と地域社会の関係

大槻知史「生活構造論の拡張による『都市における住民と地域社会の関係』についての新たな分析枠組みの提示-『地域互助』による生活課題解決の可能性を探る基礎として-」『政策科学』2003年9月という論文をネットで見つけた。

近年、防災、防犯、高齢者支援、子育て支援など都市における住民の生活課題を行政による「公助」だけでなく、地域社会による「互助」の活用により解決しようとする取り組み・主張が多くみられる。しかし、人間関係が希薄であり、住民の多くは血縁関係や社縁、関心縁などにより多様な人間関係のネットワークを築いていて、地域社会は各住民にとって選択対象のワン・オブ・ゼムでしかない。このため、地域互助への課題な期待は問題があるのではないか。

地域社会研究には、都市部の地域社会の不完全性を前提に、「都市における住民と地域社会との関係」についての詳細なモデルを提示し、地域互助の活用による住民の生活課題の解決を検討する際に、その実効性を判断するための材料を提供することが必要

しかし、都市社会学では、①地域社会が住民全体を包括する存在であることを前提としている、②全住民が地域社会にコミットすることを理想とする視点(地域社会の包括性、同質性、閉鎖性を暗黙の前提に、地域社会の統合のみを模索する)が抜け切れていない。→このため、住民の多様化、重層化が進む現在の都市部の現状を踏まえたうえで、「都市における住民と地域社会との関係」についての十分なモデルを提示できておらず、現実的な「地域互助」活用の取り組みを行うための要請に十分応えていない。

→そこで、筆者は、現代の都市において地域社会の断片化・異質化を前提に、「都市における住民と地域社会との関係」について新たなモデル構築を行い、住民の生活課題の解決手段として地域互助の活用を検討する際の新視点を提供することを企図している。

この考え方は納得・賛成なのだが、この論文は、その前段として、これまでの都市社会学研究の分析枠組みについて展開と課題を整理し、新たなモデル構築のための分析アプローチの提示(生活構造論の拡張)を試みるにとどまっており、論文の内容のほとんどは、これまでの研究の整理であり、それはそれで興味深いのだが、答えまでは出ていないので読後不満が残る。論文は、2003年なので、もっと考察が進んでいるのかもしれないが(立命館大学の先生で、防災や都市景観、文化遺産を市民が守り補修するといったことを研究されているようだ)。

生活構造:個人が都市社会の中で取り結び、所属している社会関係、社会集団の組み合わせ。社会の外部から社会構造を記述するのではなく、住民個人の視点から、地域社会の社会構造を捉えるという視点。

生活構造論の拡張:構造だけでなく、その構造を構築することにより、住民が何を得ているのかという機能を合わせて分析する。

・生活構造研究は、住民と地域の関係を「個人-集団・組織」レベルでのみとらえており、「個人-個人」レベルでの人間関係の集合という視点からとらえていない。また、主として地域内の集団との関係分析のとどまっていた。

パーソナルネットワーク研究:都市度(人口密度)の高い地域ほど他者との接触可能性が高まり、似たようなライフスタイルを持つ者同士の結合が生じやすい(フィッシャー)。都市度よりも、居住歴や学歴等都市を構成する住民の属性がパーソナルネットワークを規定する(森岡)。→生活構造論に欠けていた「個人-個人」レベルの関係や地域社会外部との関係を埋めるもの。

○著者が提示する分析のアプローチ

1.人間関係からみた住民と地域社会との関係の構造分析

住民のパーソナルネットワークの構造分析を行い、その中での地域住民とのネットワークの位置づけを分析する。

2.人間関係からみた住民と地域社会との関係の機能分析

ソーシャルサポート概念の援用により、住民が自らの持つネットワークから受けているサポートの実態を分析し、その中で地域住民とのネットワークからネガティブサポートを受け取っていると感じている住民に着目し、その規定要因を明らかにすることで人間関係の側面から地域社会活用の可能性について検討を行う。

3.住民の人間関係と地域内諸集団への集団参与の関連分析

住民のパーソナルネットワークの在り方が住民と地域内諸集団への集団参与の在り方にどのように関連するのかを分析する。

具体的には、住民の人間関係の構造(地域内外でのネットワークの数、頻度、対象)および機能(特にネガティブサポート/ポジティブサポートのどちらを受け取っているか)の在り方と、①地域内諸集団への参与、②地域内諸集団に期待している機能/享受している機能の間にどのような関連性があるのかを分析する。

地域内諸集団のタイプ(自治会・町内会など包括的で参与への強制力が強い組織、趣味サークルなど選択的で自由度の高い組織、PTAなど問題解決指向の高いアソシエーション型組織)により、住民の人間関係との関連がどのように相違するかを分析する。

以上、分析の方向性が提示されており、これをちゃんと積み重ねれば、現代における都市での地域互助を活性化させるためのヒントが得られるようには思うが、その後、こうした分析が進んだのか、その結果、どのような地域互助活性化の具体的方策が見つかったのががこの論文からは分からない。

研究とは別に、具体的に地域の町内会とアソシエーション型の組織(PTA、趣味のサークル)と個人のネットワークが共闘して地域の課題に取り組むには、どうしたら良いのか。

奈良で始めたように、まずは、地域の課題について考えるための場を設け、そこに町内会だけでなく、多様な組織を集めて議論するなかで、得手不得手を出しあい、役割分担するなどして地域力を高める方向を模索することは可能だろう。

地域にとって、内外に多様なネットワークを持つ人の存在や、個人でもそれぞれユニークな特技を持っている人の存在は、有意義であり、ネットワークや個人のワザを皆が知り合い、必要に応じて助けてもらう/参加させてもらうということがうまくできればよいはずだ。

それには、信頼のおける地域のリーダーやガバナンスが必要かもしれない。種々雑多な人や組織を上手くまとめあげられるだけの器量を持つ人が町内会に居て、地域のビジョンを皆が共有するようにすれば、これは可能かもしれない。ただ、その場合、一般化できず、リーダーが凄いということで終わってしまうかもしれないが。

サンシティの管理組合がこうしたことをやっていてくれるとケースとして面白いのだが。たとえば、広報や皆への周知のためにHPを持っているが、これはその分野を得意とする人が自発的に手掛けたとか、緑の伐採にあたって、詳しい人が伐採のノウハウを教えたとか、あるいは詳しい人を外部のネットワークに持つ人の力が活用されたなど。駐車場で得た利益で祭りをやり、マンション外の周辺地域の人にも祭りを解放したり、地域全体の防犯に協力するとか教育に協力するなどのことがあるかなど。

|

« 町内会の見方(日本的文化、行政の末端、自治体の原型、二重構造) | Main | 地域再生マニュアル(山浦晴男さん) »

Comments

Hi there, I log on to yyour new stuff like every week. Your humoristic style is awesome, keep doing what you're doing!

Posted by: cordless drill driver reviews | December 16, 2014 at 06:53 AM

Well i've doing this since ive seen my GP and kept working but bit less.

Posted by: www.amazon.com | December 29, 2014 at 10:12 AM

For as long as we're around on this planet, psople will always love to have the ability to reach out, grab something and take it with them wherever they go. Choose the most useful ten shortcuts that you use in your business annd share them on. Every single opportunity of enhancing your business image must be utilized and encashed for tthe betterment oof your organization. Learning the benefits of networking to manage a growing business empire can be the kkey to big success.

Posted by: Ide Usaha Modal Kecil 2015 | January 04, 2015 at 12:10 AM

I used to be able to find good information from your blog posts.

Posted by: Cara Isi Ulang Pulsa Listrik | January 05, 2015 at 12:12 AM

Of course the online audtion sites are always a great alternative. With this situation, it is better for you to refrain rom sarching for a job and mmaking your pocket and feet grieving for long-term search for a job. darker colors that won't show stains as much as lighterr colors.

Posted by: pusat grosir metro tanah abang pgmta | January 07, 2015 at 02:30 AM

It is natural for the people who are involved in small businesses are also to fakl into debts. There are some people whosee jobs arre their lives; theyy derive fun from their work activities - but they stilll need some time out. The banks and finaancial institutions, being commercial enterprises, are driven by profit motive and would naturally want to protect theiir capital. Don't use more than one plugin from a particular category unless there iss good reason.

Posted by: peluang bisnis rumahan 2015 | January 13, 2015 at 05:19 PM

Something spooky in here, too:Botox also finds off-label usage as panacea for marionette lines at the edges of the mouth or smokers' linesencircling lips. The most important thing to note is that we only use the best quality European hair across our entire product range. Selena Gomez performs at the 2011 Teen Choice Awards. Approximately of the guys I dated were jerks but the additional famous the guy, the better my odds were of rising up the inventory. Besides frilling cosmetic arenas, Botox is used to treat some iatric woes.

Posted by: kim kardashian hollywood cheats | January 22, 2015 at 09:09 PM

Now this sure sounds better than buying or paying rent for a building. The keey is to think about the nature oof thhe tasks annd organize them appropriately. Most diorect salles companies have an initial investment for joining the company, and I felt the fee was within my budget. These are just some of the options aailable for those who want to become Internet entrepreneurs.

Posted by: peluang usaha 2015 di rumah | January 25, 2015 at 09:05 AM

It's actually very complex in this full of activity life to listen news on TV, so I just use internet for that purpose, and obtain the hottest news.

Posted by: instant xen servers | January 28, 2015 at 02:58 PM

Wholesale shopping has become a normal thing for public shoppers. Such will lead you to a long-run success with wholesale affiliate marketing programs. Millions of people are learning how joyful and interesting crafting can be.

Posted by: http://obralbajuanakbranded.blogspot.com/ | February 04, 2015 at 11:24 PM

Some will be cheaper buying them online aand paying for shipping than you would pay at a local retailer. Thiis will as well provide you to save bigger amount of money and experience fresh dress. You know your favorite stores or bfands and you can get them much chneaper if you know how to look. Sometimes iit is possible to get huge discounts on apparel that foreign companies have rejected.

Posted by: grosir baju anak murah meriah | February 05, 2015 at 12:58 AM

In that context, the so-called "failure" of the first business was simply a stepping stone to something greater. Though price may be a determining factor, it is not the only one. Also setting up an LLC could cost as muhch as thhe busines equipment in a little mobile auto detailing company, and in essence all you are doing is paying lawyers to set up an LLC to protect you from other lawyers suing you.

Posted by: peluang bisnis 2015 | February 05, 2015 at 01:02 AM

Hi there, its pleasant post regarding media print, we all be familiar with media is a great source of facts.

Posted by: grosir daster murah,grosir baju murah,grosir mukena bali murah,peluang bisnis,peluang usaha | February 05, 2015 at 06:29 AM

Hello Dear, are you genuinely visiting this site daily, if so after that you will absolutely obtain pleasant experience.

Posted by: seo analysis tool | April 23, 2015 at 03:35 AM

Karena desain Anda dicetak yang memiliki laser warna atau sebuah printer inkjet Anda akan dapat memiliki sebagai ketika Anda suka. Bllus yang tersampir ditutupi dengan kerah lebar bahwa mengungkapkan colletage da. bsa rumit kakau dui sudah dikirim walhasil kaos bola idaman yang ditunggu tak kunjung datang.

Posted by: baju murah | June 02, 2015 at 12:14 AM

Why people still use to reaqd news papers when in this technological globe everything is accessible oon web?

Posted by: technical writing agency | June 08, 2015 at 04:00 AM

I'm not sure where you are getting your information, but good topic. I needs to spend some time learning much more or understanding more. Thanks for excellent information I was looking for this info for my mission.

Posted by: check out hybrid-news | June 11, 2015 at 08:23 PM

It is actually a nice and helpful piece of info. I am happy that you simply shared this helpful info with us. Please stay us up to date like this. Thank you for sharing.

Posted by: virginia personal injury attorney | June 25, 2015 at 02:30 AM

If you would like to increase your know-how just keep visiting this site and be updated with the most up-to-date news update posted here.

Posted by: virginia wrongful death attorney | June 25, 2015 at 04:34 AM

Great blog here! Also your website loads up fast! What host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host? I wish my site loaded up as quickly as yours lol

Posted by: Arlington Virginia | June 25, 2015 at 03:54 PM

You need to defeat five rows of 11 aliens that move horizontally and slowly descend down. A free demo can introduce you to the game's graphics, controls and storyline, allowing you to select a game that appeals to you. If you are having difficulty seeing a game while you are playing it, try adjusting the brightness setting.

Posted by: Adolph | July 08, 2015 at 06:43 PM

Hello there I am so happy I found your blog page, I really found you by error, while I was looking on Yahoo for something else, Nonetheless I am here now and would just like to say thanks a lot for a fantastic post and a all round entertaining blog (I also love the theme/design), I don't have time to go through it all at the moment but I have saved it and also included your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read more, Please do keep up the fantastic work.

Posted by: water welding salary | July 11, 2015 at 03:22 AM

A pound of ground anchos or NM peppers is $four every, which is way less than you may even see it in most hispanic markets.

Posted by: nobuffer.info | July 13, 2015 at 08:40 PM

Great site. A lot of useful information here. I am sending iit to several buddies ans additionally sharing in delicious. And naturally, thanks for your effort!

Posted by: http://Www.Ibrahimsyedschool.com/members/cassieo4884383/activity/53254/ | July 15, 2015 at 01:03 AM

Its like you read my thoughts! You seem to grasp a lot approximately this, like you wrote the ebook in it or something. I think that you just could do with some % to pressure the message home a bit, but instead of that, this is magnificent blog. A great read. I'll definitely be back.

Posted by: Security Guard Service Johns Creek | July 20, 2015 at 02:58 AM

Hey there, I think your site might be having browser compatibility issues. When I look at your website in Opera, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that, wonderful blog!

Posted by: Commercial Mover in Moore OK | July 23, 2015 at 02:41 AM

What's Going down i am new to this, I stumbled upon this I've found It positively helpful and iit has aided mme out loads. I'm hoping too give a contribution & assist different users like its aided me. Good job.

Posted by: affordable seo writing | July 30, 2015 at 04:29 AM

Hey there! I understand this is kind of off-topic but I had to ask. Does running a well-established website such as yours take a large amount of work? I am brand new to running a blog but I do write in my diary on a daily basis. I'd like to start a blog so I can easily share my own experience and feelings online. Please let me know if you have any kind of ideas or tips for brand new aspiring blog owners. Thankyou!

Posted by: Best hybrid-news | August 02, 2015 at 06:11 PM

Great post! We are linking to this great article on our site. Keep up the great writing.

Posted by: 24option review | August 11, 2015 at 02:46 AM

Sometimes the appraisal report is used by both parties to set the sale price of the property appraised. Unsecured business loan is useful to the companies which are looking out for quick availability of cash. projects in the field of education, health services, transport, communication, energy etc. The borrower will still need to provide similar documentation as required from banks. Capital - what is the present financial position of the applicant looking at the balance sheet.

Posted by: Lindsey | September 06, 2015 at 08:15 AM

What Can We Expect from Metabo Power Tools in the future. Viewers can find the projects of interest to them and stream the episodes dedicated to those projects. Do not let your fingers (or the other precious parts) be casualties of your carelessness. Audio files are modified with an application called Wave - Editor. A juicer is conical-shaped kitchen appliance used for squeezing, or extracting, juice from a variety of foods, specifically vegatables and fruits, for the purpose of drinking or adding flavor to other foods.

Posted by: Modesto | September 12, 2015 at 04:28 PM

I like the helpful information you supply in your articles. I'll bookmark your weblog and take a look at once more right here frequently. I am quite certain I'll learn many new stuff proper here! Best of luck for the following!

Posted by: seo content writer jobs kolkata | September 29, 2015 at 02:11 PM

This site definitely has all of the inf I needed concerning this subject and didn't know who to ask.

Posted by: best Article writing services | October 09, 2015 at 12:06 PM

Ahaa, its fаetidious conversation copncerning this piece of writing at this place at this webloǥ, I havе read all that, so at this time me alѕo commenting here.

Posted by: daster | November 19, 2015 at 08:27 PM

Post a comment



(Not displayed with comment.)




« 町内会の見方(日本的文化、行政の末端、自治体の原型、二重構造) | Main | 地域再生マニュアル(山浦晴男さん) »