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August 28, 2010

町内会の見方(日本的文化、行政の末端、自治体の原型、二重構造)

前の記事で、アメリカに比べた場合、日本の町内会の普及率が高いことについての評価を紹介した。

長田攻一「地域社会の二重構造と都市町内会」早稲田大学大学院文学研究科紀要哲学・史学編所収1990年をネットで見つけたが、ここでも、町内会を認め直す見解が書かれていて、面白いなぁと思った。

この論文自体は、町内会をめぐる従来の捉え方にみられる争点を整理し、それに検討を加えており、学術的な素養のないものにとって非常に読みにくく、おそらくちゃんと理解できていない(行政学者と社会学者による捉え方の違いなど)。私が理解した範囲で、面白いと思ったところだけ紹介する。

面白いと思ったのは、一度廃止されたはずの町内会が新たに復活していること、この現実に学者たちが着目し、議論や研究が重ねられてきたということだ。

その背景には、学者の間で、町内会は前近代的なもので、都市化の進展に伴い衰退するはずであるという定説があったためだ。定説と現実とのギャップを前に、学者たちが納得の行く答えを見つけようとしてきた。たとえば;

・日本人の集団原理の一つ(文化の型として把握する)

・町内会を地域権力構造としてみる(地方行政における末端事務の補完、圧力団体)

・町内会を生活集団としてみる

・町内会を地方自治体として捉えなおす(私生児扱いされながらも、近代的自治制度の不行き届きな側面を補完し、結局、地方自治の二重構造を生み出している)

○戦前からの町内会の歴史

・昭和15年内務訓令17号「部落会町内会等整備要綱」によって、戦時下での国民統制と戦時事務の徹底化をはかるために、町内会が全国的に整備されるとともに、大政翼賛会の傘下に入り、昭和18年の市町村制改正により、町内会が名実ともに国家行政の末端機構として法制化された。

・戦後まもなく、占領軍GHQの強い要請の下で、政令15号によって町内会等の隣保組織は法令の上で廃止される。

・しかし、その3ケ月以内には、8割近くの組織が名称を変えるなどして事実上復活し、同政令が1952年に失効すると、町内会は全国各地で公然と活動を開始し始めた。

・1950年代末から60年代に入り、都市化、産業化の進展が目覚ましく、とくに都市地域において多くの自発的・多元的な機能集団が結成されるが、これらは次第に町内会に吸収ないしは一元化され、町内会が再生産されていった。

・内部構造は、以前の旧名望家地主層にかわり自営業者、中小企業主を中心とする旧中間層による階層的支配の構造を温在している。(今は、元学校の先生や主婦などに変わってきているのではないか)

◆上記の歴史があるため、町内会は、自治・民主化に逆行するものであると捉えられた。

○明治期の地方自治制度の成立の歴史

・明治政府の徹底した中央集権志向による西欧的な地方自治制度形成の試みは、官僚的支配における権力構造の浸透を円滑化するための装置として地方自治体を構想することであった。

・1871年:大区小区制度(旧来の藩制村の組織を大区・小区に分類し、庄屋、名主、組頭、年寄等の名称が戸長、副戸長と改められ、これらを準官吏とする行政末端機構として再編成)→失敗(あまりにも人工的な計画は実際の村落構造と著しく矛盾を来す)

・1879年:郡区町村編成法による郡町村の復活(地租改正事業の円滑化などを背景として旧来の町村を再認識するとともに、それらと県をつなぐ官僚機関として郡役所を置くことになり、地方自治制度の骨格が形成される)

・1888年:市制町村制(町村行政の徹底化をめざして、旧来の村落共同体末端組織としての集落組織が「区」」としての位置づけを与えられ、行政の補助機関としての機能を期待されることになる。旧来の集落秩序をそのまま温存しつつ、町村の側から区長を任命して行政の末端機構として位置づけられる「区」の原型が明確な姿をあらわす)

・1899年府県制郡制

◆明治政府は、日本の地方自治制度の形成にあたり、旧来の名望家-地主層の階層的支配構造をそのまま承認し温存すると同時に、寺社の再編成を積極的に推し進める。この上に町村制の補強を企てた(イギリスのパリッシュが教区をベースにしているのに対し、日本は、寺社の仕組みを壊したことが今日のよりどころの無さにつながっているのかもしれない。天皇一家にしたところ、それが戦後崩壊したにも係らず、寺社という精神の拠り所<ある種の人間社会を上手く回す知恵>が再生されなかった)。

これを「区は、地方名望家層の勢力培養としての役割をもたらした」という見方もある。

旧来の共同体的秩序を基盤とする区が地域住民の日常生活と自治体とを媒介する装置としての機能を負わされてきた。

◆このため、①ゲマインシャフト的な基礎集団と生活上の便宜を目的とするゲゼルシャフト的な機能集団という異なる性格を併せ持ち、また②行政末端機構としての役割担っているとされる。

◆町内会は、戦後法制上は任意団体となり、公的行政から制度的に切り離されたにも拘わらず、行政の側では、戦後の経済復興と急激な産業化・都市化に対応して町村合併を推進し行政の効率を高める努力をする一方、拡大する行政事務処理と地域住民との媒介装置の必要から、町内会への依存をますます高めていった。町内会は行政の補助事務を代行し、それに対し行政は補助金を支出するという慣例が定着している(私の自治会では、何がこれにあたるのだろう?)

◆町内会が地域の利害を代表し、行政に対して圧力団体的機能を果たす例がかなり多いことが指摘され、町内会を住民自治組織と見る見方もある。環境整備、公害阻止などの生活防衛を目的として行動(具体的に知らないが、そんな活動をしている町内会があるのだろうか)。

◆町内会は、旧来の生活共同体的自治機構を温存させつつ、それを新たな地方自治機構の素に組み込もうとしたことにより、一見一元化されたかにみえる官治的支配機構の内部に、いわば二重の構造化の契機を孕むことになった。上からつくられた行政組織としての地方自治体と、町内の生み出した地域集団としての自治組織の共存である。→町内会を地方自治体と考える。

そう考えると、①自動的ないし半強制的に全戸加入、②機能的に未分化(包括的)、③地方行政事務の末端協力機構、④一つの地域には一つの町内会しかない・・・といった町内会の特徴は不思議でないことになる。

◆日本人の自治感覚の基礎は、欧米人のような共通の信条と契約の論理に基づく自治とは対照的に、その場その場の状況に合わせた調和を乱さないようにする秩序感覚に求める意見もある。日本人にあった自治の適正規模は、人間関係の場がそこに成立していなければならず、その規模が町内会なのだ。町村合併によって地方公共団体は大きくなる一方であり、町内会との二重構造が生じた。

◆日本においては、地域社会の原型を神への信仰を中心とし、生産と生活の共同によって生み出された村落共同体に求める見方が有力。村落共同体を出自とする都市住民が村落共同体をもでるにして生活秩序を築いた。日本の都市の生活集団からなる社会を町内(まちうち)として分析(松平誠)。生産のための共同を媒介とせず、地縁的な生活共同体を構成する必要から、自治的集団を構築。

・近隣結合:個々の家が持つ個別の生活欲求を中心に自然に形成された近隣数個による生活単位

・町結合:アモルフな広がりをもつ町部のなかで、同族団や小組では処理しきれない生活上の欲求を満たすために形成された組の結合。

・地域集団結合:その組がより制度化された集団へと転化した場合、町内会のような地域集団が成立する。これは、必ずしも共同体的基礎を必要とせず、明示された規約と機構を持つ制度化の度合いの高い集団。

町内会:伝統的に町結合が果たしてきた防火・防犯・衛生などの用具的機能、親睦などの表出的機能、町内の統合・調整機能の一切。

◆江戸時代から明治にかけ、分権から中央集権へ、経済や産業構造が大きく変化し、戦後地域社会の構造が大きく変化してきたにも拘わらず、ミクロなレベルでは、地縁に基づく自衛と相互扶助の秩序が温存し続けてきた。庶民の生活秩序そのものには、大きな変更が加えられることがなかった。

上からの自治制度形成に支配された町内会の側面から目を転じて、異質なものを包摂しながら全体としての統合を果たしうるような特殊な組織原理をこを探っていくべきではないか。時代状況に応じた柔軟な適応によって存続し続けるきわめて特殊な組織原理なのではないか(五人組を最末端とすいる地域社会のうちに、この秩序感覚は蓄えられていた)。

秩序感覚の特徴は、

①血縁よりも、軒並みや最寄など地縁に基づく(日本では、血縁集団の力が早い時期に弱まり、地縁集団の力が強まった。氏神が血縁集団の守り神ではなくなり、土地の神である産土神と混同され、さらに出生とも関係のない鎮守と渾然となってしまった)。

したがって欧米の近隣社会と違って、宗教、信条、階級や職業が雑多であり、その違いが人間関係の場に持ち込まれない

③この地縁的秩序は、特定のイデオロギーによって形成されたものではなく、それだけに外部からの影響に対しては無防備でありその作用を受けやすい(無性格性)。この無性格性こそ、異質な支配を支えうる根拠となっている。

④規模が比較的小さく、の組織や機能が平均化されており、したがってそのなかで培われた秩序感覚や儀礼のパターンは、日本人の多くに共有された文化型を構成し、どこにいっても通用する一種の言語的機能を果たしうる。

→町内会を単なる自治組織ないしアソシエーションとしてとらえるのではなく、基底にある生活秩序およびその文化的特質を踏まえて、その上に成立していると捉えるべき。

そう考えると、都市の町内会が老人の親睦機能しか果たしていないのは、衰退と認識すべきではなく、親睦などのゲマインシャフト的機能は、もともと近隣結合のなかで培われ、蓄積された生活秩序感覚が町内会に反映されたとみるべき。ゲゼルシャフト的機能を官製自治体が担うようになればなるほど、町内会にはゲマインシャフト的な機能が残ったとみるべき。

こうした性格を持った町内会が明治、大正、昭和、戦後の社会変動のなかで、どのような基本的性格を維持し、どんな変容をしたかを地域ごとに詳細に観察すべき。

◆戦後の産業構造の変化より、地域社会が主婦、子供、高齢者など、経済的生産に従事していない人々が主体となっている傾向を、従来、地域社会の空洞化と考えるきらいがあったが、生産のための共同がないからといってこれを地域社会の空洞化とみるのは高度経済成長期の価値観にとらわれているのかもしれない。

こうした生活者を中心とした新たな生活の可能性を模索するなかで、町内会と呼ばれる地域集団の生活秩序と集団原理を見直し、表層のまちの下にある深層のまちに今後予想される時代の変化に合わせたあらなた自治と生活の実質を与えていくことができるか否かが問われるべき。

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